Hidden History: Macon's Tybee Neighborhood

When you hear the word Tybee, you probably think of the beach. I did too. That is until my friend Nancy told me about Macon’s Tybee neighborhood.

“My family is from Macon. They lived in Tybee. My mom was born there. So, I’m a Maconite by birth.”

As I listened to her, it was clear I was missing something. Tybee in Macon? Having transplanted to Macon when I was young but having no real roots here, I feel like a Maconite on some days and an outsider on others. At that moment, Nancy was clearly more Macon than I was.


Lunch that day was the beginning of an ongoing conversation about this neighborhood on the outskirts of downtown in Macon’s past that has vanished from the map and, in many cases, from the narrative.
It didn’t take much digging to find an award-winning Telegraph feature from 2005 by S. Heather Duncan. In it, Duncan interviewed Maconites who once called the neighborhood home. The Sunday morning cover story spanned a full five pages and included a map, historic and present-day photos, and chronicled the deconstruction of the neighborhood. (It’s still available to view at the Washington Memorial Library!)

So how could an entire neighborhood just disappear? Well if you haven’t guessed, Tybee’s residents were African-American. One look in the rearview mirror of U.S. history shows us it is not uncommon for non-white neighborhoods to be targets of systematic oppression in one form or another. Duncan reports that “Tybee was likely one of Macon’s first black settlements, probably founded between 1820 and 1850.”  As a reminder, slavery was not legally abolished until 1865 when the 13th amendment was ratified. 100 years after which, the U.S. operated under segregation. Tybee was considered an entry point to the city for those leaving the farms and plantations that had once considered them part of the estate. The founders of Tybee were building something from nothing in the swampland on the other side of the tracks.


As I continued my pursuit to understand what really happened to Tybee, I met with Alice Bailey. Having spent time with her cousins in the neighborhood as a child, she generously shared stories of her girlhood on front porches there. Today we associate the area in and around Bay and Hazel Streets as the downtown industrial district, but during its formation, it was a residential area. “The people were there first,” Alice told me, “the industries sprung up over there because it was near their target work-force. Transportation wouldn’t be an issue.”


Under the banner of urban renewal, the neighborhood was deconstructed during the 1960s, displacing its residents throughout Macon. Considering the buses didn’t run to Tybee, this often meant that Tybee residents were losing their homes and their jobs. Cycling through the area last week, I saw neglected structures, skeleton foundations that had clearly suffered a fire, empty fields, and a single house on Elm Street. If you don’t know about Tybee, you would never suspect this had once been the lands of a thriving community.    

Often times, preservation is strictly thought of in terms of brick and mortar. But what about when the buildings are gone?  As we began planning Preservation Month activities for this year, it was clear to me something should be done to highlight the hidden history of Tybee. A history that is at risk of being lost from Macon’s memory. Though only one lone house remains from Tybee, the stories endure. Stories of commerce and kinship and craft. Stories of family and loss and fear. Stories worth preserving. Stories worth hearing. Stories worth sharing.


We can all be a part of expanding Macon’s narrative. We can all be keepers of this history. By listening to the stories of those from Tybee, you become a part of preservation.

If you want to learn more about Tybee and what once was, join us this Preservation Month for Wrong Side of the Tracks: Panel on Macon’s Tybee Neighborhood. The panel consists of former residents, individuals connected to the community, and historians.

Wrong Side of the Tracks

Panel on Macon’s Tybee Neighborhood

May 19

5:00 - 7:00 pm

Elaine Lucas Senior Center

132 Willie Smokie Glover Dr

Faces of Preservation

When Nancy Cleveland moved to Macon in 2014 to get to know her family, she did not anticipate staying long-term. Despite having been born in “the heart of Georgia,” she grew up in New York City and had been long disconnected from her Macon roots. She made the move south but, anticipating a quick exit, kept her distance. However, after a few years of living withdrawn she decided it was time to engage with her community. By enrolling in Historic Macon’s Neighborhood Leadership Institute (NLI), Nancy began to understand how preservation can grow and shape a community. Upon finishing the program, Nancy joined HMF’s Engagement Committee initially to lend her marketing skills to the organization but ended up finding much more than she bargained for.

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“My connections with Rachelle and Lauren created a feeling that Macon was home,” she says. “I was learning about different communities. By the time I joined the Engagement Committee, I really understood what the events are about and the fundraising goals attached to them. When I went to the Brunch at the Grotto, being behind the scenes changed things. Seeing all that went into a fundraiser- the catering, drinks, and flowers- and then also adding the educational component… that was fascinating. It just started building my feelings of connectedness with Macon.”

Before long, Nancy found herself envisioning a future rooted in this central Georgia town. Her big-city energy had been redirected into a place where her passion could make a meaningful difference and she couldn’t imagine leaving. Now she serves as the Communications and Development Associate at the Community Foundation of Central Georgia and is in the market for the perfect historic house to make into her permanent home.

And though Nancy didn’t discover the impact of preservation until later in her life, for Katie Griffis, her exposure was quite the inverse.

“Preservation has been a part of my life ever since I can remember,” Katie says. “One of my first memories is of the Flea Market. My dad brought me down there to visit my mom and grandmother, who were volunteering. I remember being so upset that I couldn’t stay and help with the Flea Market.”

But once she was old enough, Katie and her brother joined the rest of their family by volunteering with this long-standing fundraiser to support historic preservation within the Macon community. Her grandmother, Gloria Wynn, served at the first ever Flea Market and it has been a family tradition ever since. Next time there’s an HMF Flea Market, three generations can be spotted volunteering in the various roles. Gloria, Kathy, and Katie all agree that Macon’s history is worth preserving, evidenced by their lifelong (and multi-generational) commitment to supporting preservation efforts in Macon.


For so many, the commitment to preservation is birthed out of love for one specific house. This was the case with James Caldwell, who volunteers with HMF weekly and serves on the board.

“I live in a historic area,” he says. “I adore anything that has historical significance. My home is a 1900 craftsman bungalow with a porch that has a bit of Tudor influence.”

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In 2017, James joined HMF’s Neighborhood Leadership Institute as a representative of Napier Heights and continues to advocate for the preservation of the houses there. Napier Heights has recently been approved by the Georgia National Register Review Board, resulting in the district being listed on the Georgia Register of Historic Places and is in the process of being sent to the National Park Service for review to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places. James’ passion for preserving his community is coming to fruition on a national level; made possible with his involvement and advocacy.

When James began volunteering with the Flea Market over ten years ago, it was because he wanted to take his membership to the next level. He knew that supporting a cause can take many different forms, and membership was just the beginning. James’ adoration of Macon’s historic charm is expressed through the care of his home, his advocacy for the Napier Heights neighborhood, and his support of HMF. “Historic Macon embodies the concept of preserving the culture and history of my neighborhood,” he says. “I’m so happy to be involved!”

For some, volunteering at the Flea Market has been just the beginning. Oby Brown began helping with the fundraiser over five years ago but more recently started lending his expertise to the organization in a whole new way. A writer and editor by profession, Oby contributes by writing features for HMF’s blog and offering editorial guidance for other content. It may be a non-traditional form of volunteerism, but its one that brings joy to everyone involved.


“I like volunteering for Historic Macon because its work produces tangible results all over the city,” he says. “The people there are smart, creative and care about this town. They are making a real difference in Macon’s renaissance, and I like being a small part of that effort.”

His features on this Second Street Facade and Macon’s Green Book generated quite the buzz in Macon and beyond! But Oby still loves the Flea Market and can be found moving furniture from here to there to here again at our Saturday Brew Crews and on sale weekends.


Flea Market Sale weekends are a wonderful showcase for the multitude of ways to engage. You’ll find HMF staff, volunteers, and board members all serving side-by-side to execute this annual fundraiser. Board member Larry Brumley enjoys joining the organization by serving during the sale. He says, “By volunteering, people extend the reach and effectiveness of the organization; they augment the staff and those who are already involved with their volunteer service.” A long-time member and board member of two years, Larry has gotten better acquainted with HMF through his engagement. “I’ve long had high regard for HMF. For more than 20 years I’ve observed their work in the community and the good things they have done to advance preservation and to foster economic development with restoring historic neighborhoods,” Larry says. “The most visible work that HMF does is preservation, restoring historic structures of a building and putting them back into service. But when I came on the board, I learned there’s a lot more that HMF does in terms of education, advocacy, and partnering with other organizations and entities in the community. It all works together to make Macon a better place to live, work, and play.”

There are many faces of preservation and many ways to express your passion for the Macon community. In the words of Nancy, “When you volunteer with HMF, you’ll meet great people but you’ll also find out something new about yourself that you didn’t know... Many times in Macon, people get to know an organization through one event and think that that is all that they do. But I would encourage people to really explore HMF. Stop by the office, they’re so friendly and find out all that they’re involved in. It is so many things, not just the Flea Market or Meet & Greets… go lift up the curtain.”

Nancy, Katie, Kathy, Gloria, James, Oby, and Larry are all the faces of preservation. And there are so many more! Be the face of preservation by volunteering, joining a committee or the board, attending our events and fundraisers, lending your expertise, following us online, subscribing to our monthly updates, becoming a member or preservation partner, and sharing our mission with your friends and family! Macon is preservation. And so are you.

The Matriarchs of Macon

When you’re getting acquainted with Macon, it doesn’t take much time to discover the abundance of our historic houses and the richness and variety of their design. Many times, our efforts to preserve a house reach beyond the value of the contributing design to include the fascinating stories of those who lived in them or those who designed them. This March, we are happy to highlight a few female architects from Macon who have helped shape the designs we have grown to know and love.


Despite the home often being considered “a woman’s place” in the early 1900s, women’s input on the design of said home had been minimal. Architectural work was one of many fields that men monopolized. In fact, Georgia Tech (the primary spot for architectural study in Georgia) didn’t allow women into its program until 1952. This forced Macon-born architect Leila Ross Wilburn to forge a different path. After mixing college courses and an apprenticeship to learn the trade, Wilburn became one of the first female architects in Georgia. She opened her own practice in 1908 in Atlanta. Forsaking an office among fellow architects, Wilburn established herself in a building with real estate agents and developers, using those connections to expand her reach and grow her network. Her focus was exclusively residential, and she promoted the design of houses that were accessible to the average family.

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Wilburn was passionate about “small domestic architecture,” evidenced by the distribution of her designs through plan books.

The New Georgia Encyclopedia puts it this way,

Her stock plans were featured in such publications as Ideal Homes of Today and Southern Homes and Bungalows. They were available to carpenters, bricklayers, developers, and builders, who purchased working drawings and erected bungalows, cottages, and ranch houses—in general, as the title of one of her plan books described them, "small low-cost homes" for the South. Wilburn-designed houses proliferated throughout neighborhoods and suburbs of Atlanta and elsewhere in Georgia, where there are more houses by Wilburn than by any other architect from any period.

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By making her designs accessible to all, they became part of the Georgia fabric. And while Wilburn revolutionized the layman’s accessibility to house plans, Ellamae Ellis League was hot on her heels in Macon, pushing the boundaries even further. Like the other women of the time aiming to pursue architecture as a career, League was forced to take an unconventional path to her certification. After the required 10 years of serving as an apprentice, she passed the weeklong exam and officially opened her own practice in 1934. Besides planning residential properties, League made her mark in every type of design environment imaginable.

According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia,

In 1934 only 2 percent of American architects were women, and women who were principals in their own firms were practically nonexistent. Most women architects specialized almost exclusively in domestic architecture—they were considered to have a better "feel" for house design. League, in contrast, took on a variety of jobs, including Public Works Administration commissions. She designed many churches, schools, and hospitals, which were her favorite projects because they were so complex, and because they were buildings in which people were helped. Her firm did not attempt to establish its own distinctive design style but followed the Ecole des Beaux-Arts philosophy that buildings should fulfill the functional requirements of the owner and be aesthetically pleasing both to the owner and to the public.  

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Her designs have proven integral to our community. Maconites still pass her work on a daily basis. The Medical Center, Mulberry United Methodist Church, and numerous homes in the Shirley Hills neighborhood are all fine examples of her work. Some of her notable designs, such as the old Ballard-Hudson High School, are no longer standing, but they remain strong in the memories of those who grew up in Macon. We are happy to claim League as a fellow preservationist too! After the threat of demolition, she advocated to save the Grand Opera House and undertook the restoration design herself from 1968-1970. In 1968 League became the fourth woman in the U.S. to be elected a fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) and was the only woman fellow in Georgia upon her death in 1991.

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The work of both Wilburn and League have shaped the fabric of Southern life and living. They are shining examples of the benefits of having an inclusive culture in the field of architecture. At HMF, we are happy to boast the talents of our own female architect, Shannon Fickling. Earning a master of architecture from Georgia Tech, she is a registered architect and member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). Currently serving as our Preservation Project Manager, Fickling joins the ranks of those before her as a pioneer in the field, as an architect whose work is making a difference in our community.

what the ‘Green Book’ says about macon

If you’ve seen the movie “Green Book,” you perked up when the film showed pianist Donald Shirley stopping in Macon during a concert tour of the Deep South in 1962.

Wow. Aren’t those beautiful shots of the Grand Opera House, you sat there thinking. Wish I had known when the film crew was in town. Maybe I could have caught a glimpse of Mahershala Ali or his co-star, Viggo Mortensen, who played Tony Vallelonga, Shirley’s driver and bodyguard during the tour.


The thing is, that brief performance scene was filmed at The Orpheum Theater in New Orleans, where the film made its local premiere during the 2018 New Orleans Film Festival. (Which created an odd moment for festival-goers, who watched the movie on a screen set up on the same stage where Ali’s character was performing in the movie.)


But we digress. The faux Grand Opera House scene did make us wonder, though, if there were any real connections to Macon associated with the “Green Book,” which was actually known as “The Negro Motorist Green Book” when it was first published in 1936. And the answer is yes.

The guidebook, written by postal worker Victor Hugo Green, helped black travelers find motels, restaurants, filling stations and more that were safe or even welcoming for them on the road during the Jim Crow South. As Green explained, the guide was meant “to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties (or) embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable.” And maybe avoid injury — or worse — in so-called “sundown towns,” which banned the presence of black people after dark.

Early on, there were four main categories in the guide: hotels, motels, “tourist homes” (private residences) and restaurants. The listings were arranged by state and subdivided by city. They gave the name and address of each home or business. (For an extra payment, businesses could have their listing in bold type or have a star next to it. That meant they were “recommended.”


In the 1938 guide, two hotels and four homes were listed under the Macon heading, according to a copy of the guide in the New York Public Library’s digital collection:

— Douglass Hotel, 361 Broadway. (Yes, Charles Douglass founded this hotel in 1908, four years before the Douglass Theatre was built.)

— Richmond Hotel, 319 Broadway.

— Mrs. M. Clemons, 104 Spring St.

— Mrs. E.C. Moore, 122 Spring St.

— Mrs. F.W. Henndon, 139 First Ave.

— Mrs. C.A. Monroe, 108 Spring St.

As the guide grew, with more and more information provided to Green, the number — and types — of locales increased. In time you could find beauty salons, nightclubs and country clubs.

By 1949, the Douglass and Richmond hotels still were listed, as well as the homes of Moore and Henndon. But there were also four restaurants:  Mable’s on Main Street; Red Front, 417 Wall St.; Jean’s, 429 Cotton Ave.; and West Side, 961 Dempsey Ave. You also found a service station (Anderson’s at Pursley and Pond streets) and two tailors (Huschel’s, 264 Broadway; and Community, 550 Third Ave.) And there were four beauty parlors: Marquiata, 554 New St.; La Bonita, 455 Cotton Ave.; Carrie’s, 133 Forest Ave.; and Lula Life, 425 E. Second St.

“If you’re traveling you don’t have to worry about accommodations — whether this place will take you in or that place will sell you food. That is if you’re white and gentile. If you’re not, you have to travel a careful route like seeking oases in a desert,” an ad in that edition said.

The 1966-67 edition — Green’s last — contained just four listings for Macon: the Douglass and Richmond hotels; Mabell’s Place, 247 Fifth St. (“Home Cooked Meals — Best in Town)”; and Jean’s Restaurant, which apparently had moved to 545 Cotton Ave. By then, the landmark Civil Rights Act — which outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin — had been the law of the land for almost three years. That made the travel guide less and less necessary.

Sadly, many of the homes and buildings in the guide are gone now, victims of change, expansion or “progress.” And that’s not counting such losses as Tremont Temple Baptist Church and the historic Douglass House, two notable structures in the black community that were torn down in 2014 to make room for new development.


In recent years, Macon residents have banded together to preserve, revitalize and celebrate the Cotton Avenue District, long known as downtown’s black business district. The Cotton Avenue Coalition is trying to gain historic district status for the avenue, which would halt such demolition.

We also think of gems across the city that have been close to the wrecking ball, including the Douglass Theatre, which closed in 1972 before reopening to renewed splendor in 1997, and yes, even the Grand Opera House, which was saved from demolition nearly 50 years ago for more downtown parking.

And then there’s the little yellow cottage that used to sit on Fifth Street. To some folks, it was just an old ramshakle house. But it was the childhood home of one “Little Richard” Penniman. It was saved, and it has been renovated and relocated to Craft Street, where it will be a resource center for the Pleasant Hill neighborhood.

All of this is why the Historic Macon Foundation has taken the lead and bolstered its oversight of such historic structures. Its Fading Five program began in 2015, spurred by the Tremont Temple and Douglass losses. Among its aims is to advocate for an inclusive approach to preservation.

We couldn’t help but call to mind Otis Redding’s cover of an old William Bell song that says in part: “You don’t miss your water till your well runs dry.”

Restoration, One Brick at a Time

A grande dame in downtown Macon is getting her second wind.

The next time you’re downtown, take a minute to go by 458 Second St. If you look closely, you’ll see the words “Independent Laundry Co.” in a blue-and-white tile mosaic across the building’s facade. The building -- more than 100 years old -- has been vacant for decades, but it is coming back to life thanks to Yash Patel and his father, Ashok. If restoration work continues on schedule, the site will open as Macon’s newest brewpub by spring, providing Yash a retail setting for the beer he crafts at his Macon Beer Co.

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But there is plenty to do before then. It took almost a month to remove bricks -- many of them one by one -- that were covering historic beauty beneath, including the tile mosaic and a steel beam that runs horizontally across the front (look for the rivets). But that kind of care is important to the Patels.

“We’re trying to maintain the integrity of the building as it was designed,” Yash said. “Historic preservation is something I really enjoy.”

Added his father, “It’s going to look like the original building” when work is finished.

Key to their efforts since they closed on the building in August 2017 has been guidance from the Historic Macon Foundation.

“They’ve helped with the rules and regulations,” Yash said, as well as plenty of other particulars, including possible tax credits for the project.

“They have been very, very helpful,” added Ashok, whose company, Kunj Construction, is handling the rehab work. “It’s one of the best buildings in downtown.”

Most of the building’s brick was in good shape. In fact, Yash said he was most surprised at “how intact the entire facade was even in its current state.”


Once the facade work is done -- with windows restored or replaced and marble or granite touches in place -- that will be it. No paint for this facade, as has been the case at other renovated downtown buildings. At one time there was -- you guessed it -- a commercial laundry and dry cleaner in the left side of the building. (Old-timers will remember an orange Volkswagen van that drove around town to pick up laundry.) A Sherwin-Williams paint store once occupied the right side of the building.

When the Patels are finished, the new taproom (“Our lab,” Yash said, laughing) and restaurant will occupy the building’s right side, beside Bearfoot Tavern, and about 20 new lofts will eventually open on the left side. But that work will take another 18 months or so to finish. (You can follow the renovation progress on social media by following Macon Beer Co.)


The tile mosaic is among the most fetching features uncovered so far. An Italian immigrant skilled in the craft completed it in 1918, Ashok said. He’s trying to learn more about the building’s history and details as he can. And there’s an added touch of serendipity: The tile colors match those of Macon Beer Co.’s logo.

Second Street Corridor improvements have drawn plenty of attention -- and funding -- in recent years, and now a lot of energy is pouring into Poplar Street, with several new shops opening in recent months.

That’s an added incentive for the Patels: to take part in the downtown renaissance.

“We’ve always wanted to be part of the downtown scene, … the night scene,” Yash said. “It’s going to be good.”

We concur. How could a marriage of history and beer not be?

2018 Preservation Picks

When someone mentions the Historic Macon Foundation, many folks think of old homes or long-abandoned buildings that have been restored to their former glory, thanks in large measure to the foundation’s help and leadership. But we all know that preservation and revitalization come in many different forms, in all walks of life.

Each year the members of our staff, partners with their own areas of expertise and skill, share efforts in their particular field (or an area of interest) that have caught their eye -- or ear -- that they’d like others to know about.

This list, our second Preservation Picks, will give you a sampling of reading and listening options -- and much more -- during a busy holiday season of road trips and family visits. Not that you’d want a little time away from Aunt Martha.

Here goes:

“Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil” by John Berendt


For my Preservation Pick this year I've selected “Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil.”  Admittedly, I should have read this book years ago, but no one ever told me that historic preservation played such a key role in the story.  I had seen the movie when it came out, which likely turned me off the book. Needless to say, the book was entertaining -- riveting -- and is certainly worthy of my Preservation Pick for 2018, albeit 24 years too late.

Ethiel Garlington, Executive Director

“Blueberry Hill” by Louis Armstrong

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More than 13 years ago, my grandmother in Alaska mailed this CD to me for my 16th birthday. Arguably my favorite album of all time, it has been in heavy rotation ever since. It’s a live recording with multiple singers, and Armstrong leads his band and the listener through an amazing journey of jazz. From a female singer's take of  “Georgia On My Mind” to instrumental odysseys in “Jazz Me Blues” to my adolescent favorite, “Jeepers Creepers,” this album has everything a jazz lover could ever want. How wonderful that we can preserve the genius of this man and talented crew through live recordings!

P.S. It's available on Spotify

Rachelle Wilson, Director of Engagement


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There’s plenty to love about Instagram, the social networking app made for sharing photos and videos. Here are some of my favorite Instagram accounts for photos of historic architecture and beautiful gardens.  

  • oldgeorgiahomes

  • thefrontdoorproject

  • the.preservationist

  • oakspringgardenfoundation

  • Mcalpinehouse

  • archi_ologie

  • Oldhouselove

These accounts have local connections:

  • quincy hammond

  • robinson_home

  • marypinsonflowers

  • canaanmarshall

Shannon Fickling, Preservation Project Manager

Shopping in Downtown Macon


My Preservation Pick is all the great downtown Macon shopping options! Travis Jean Emporium, Macon Arts Gallery, WEAR, the Pink Chief, Blair Furniture, Kaybee (and its super awesome upstairs shoe room!). Talk about a hidden gem. Not to mention all the fabulous restaurants that offer cool swag, T-shirts and hats. You can find something for almost everyone when you shop in historic downtown Macon.

Trish Whitley, Director of Development

“The Devil in the White City,” by Eric Larson


If you're like me and love all things architecture, but you also enjoy listening to a true crime podcast, this is the book for you. Taking readers back to 1890s Chicago, we meet the man behind the 1893 Chicago's World Fair architecture and design: Daniel Hudson Burnham (also credited for New York's Flat Iron Building). While Burnham is anxiously building the World's Fair under a tight deadline, a sinister serial killer, Henry Holmes, is slowly building his own murder palace just blocks away.  

I could go on and on about all the intriguing facts revealed throughout this book -- one part architectural history and another part true crime -- but what was most interesting was the impact the World's Fair had not only on architecture, but also on food, society, and popular culture for decades.

Lauren Mauldin, Director of Neighborhood Revitalization

“A Charlie Brown Christmas”


Sometimes preservation can simply mean keeping a family tradition alive. This year, my Preservation Pick is just that! As a child, I grew up watching “A Charlie Brown Christmas” every Christmas Eve with my parents and siblings. Now a mother, this is a tradition I enjoy doing with my daughter during the holidays. Each year, we cuddle up with our blankets, just like Linus, make hot chocolate, and watch this special film that celebrates the true meaning of Christmas.

Latachia Clay, Business Manager  

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps


Sanborn Maps, found at the Washington Memorial Library, are unbelievably beneficial to my work. These fire insurance maps, dating back as early as 1884 in Bibb County, document how buildings evolve over time in ways that photographs can’t. Beyond that, they are little works of art! The detail and care that go into each one of these are amazing. It requires what would be considered today a superhuman level of patience. They are a lost art form.

Matt Chalfa, Director of Preservation Field Services

The Telegraph of old

Ever wonder what The Telegraph looked like 100 years ago? Or, for that matter, what the newspaper covered in those days and how it chose to display those stories? Well, there’s an easy way to do that, and it’s fascinating. There is a NewsBank site (easily accessible through the library) where you can search for old Telegraph pages -- or any of thousands of other newspapers across the country -- that have been preserved. You can visit the library to gain access or register and set up your own account. If you are curious or want to do serious research, this is an invaluable way to do so. (Remember: The Telegraph has been known by slightly different names over the years since it began as a weekly newspaper in 1826.) That’s right: It just turned 192 years old.

Happy reading.

Oby Brown, HMF Editor at Large

Art is Preservation

Preservation work comes in all shapes and sizes, Nashville artist Brandie Lee will tell you.


Supporters of Historic Macon Foundation who attended the recent Wine & Dine Lawn Party got to see one example of Lee’s artistry, and it involved a nearly 50-year-old “proofing press” that she used to make ink prints of classic cocktails. (Take a look at the accompanying photographs to get a better idea of her letterpress creations.)

Lee graduated from Macon’s Central High School and studied public service at what was then Macon State College before a series of moves that included a stint in Thailand teaching English. Now she lives in Music City, where her art work is drawing attention.

Nashville “seemed like a place that I could root down and do the art I wanted to do,” the 34-year-old said.

Lee grew up “sketching and painting some.” In time, her interests turned more and more to “the tactile experience of art.” In Nashville, she found Hatch Show Print, an iconic letterpress print and design shop whose motto is preservation through production.

“I’d heard about Hatch and I was fascinated by it,” she said.

In time she applied for a coveted six-week internship — and got one.


“Everything there is hand-touched,” she said. “It feels like true art to me. That’s where my interest in letterpress came from. That’s exactly where my interests were.”

For the cocktail glass creations, she drew a design on paper, then used that design to carve the actual raised image — backward — out of linoleum. She rolls oil-based ink onto the image with a brayer, or hand roller, locks down a piece of paper, then rolls the weighted press over the raised image to create the print.

There are three different drink prints — for a mint julep, an Old-Fashioned, and a French 75 -- that list all the drink’s ingredients within the outline of each particular drinking glass.


“It’s a very hands-on process,” she said. “I like getting to show people the letterpress (process). It takes you back to the roots. I really enjoy getting to work on things — the physicality of it. It’s the opposite of mass production.”

How did the idea come to her?


“Cocktails are a very social part of Nashville,” she said. “Cocktails are hand-crafted too,” just like her letterpress work. “You go to a bar and say, “I like this drink. I’d really like to remember how to make it. It’s a way to convey the essence of a drink and how to make it. It’s the idea of form and function,” she said. “When things go together well, I like it.”

She’s also turned her attention to watercolor work, including what she calls the Laugh-A-bit animal alphabet gallery. She gets back to Macon a couple times a year, where her parents, Curtis and Laura Lee, still live. For now, she’ll continue to explore ways to create works that are “visual and artistic, but also informative,” she said.

“I just like to bring truth and beauty and joy into the world — and levity too,” she said. “Authenticity and truth are so important to me.”

HMF is proud to support preservation in the many forms it can take. Lee’s cocktail creations and her unique approach to preservation through art were a feature of our Wine & Dine Lawn Party last month. Each guest was provided with a cocktail print, which are currently available to purchase at Travis Jean Emporium in Downtown Macon. This is just one more way we go beyond saving buildings to promote preservation in our everyday lives.

If you’d like to see other examples of Lee’s work or purchase any of her creations, go to:

Website: http://www.birdsflyover.com/

Instagram: @BirdsFlyOver https://www.instagram.com/birdsflyover/

Etsy: https://www.etsy.com/shop/birdsflyover

For the Love of Whiskey!

From 1920 to 1933 the U.S. was under prohibition, a federal law preventing the manufacture and sale of alcohol. But of course, there are those for whom laws do little in the way of separating them from their passions, even if those passions entail fermenting grain mash. This was the case with Macon's Russell Dortch. HMF's senior intern from Stratford Academy, Carson Greene, shares some of his research on this man and his turbulent love for whiskey. 

On the evening of December 5th, 1923, Russell Dortch was arrested and placed under bond for violating the National Prohibition Act.  Even though there are not many details given on this arrest, it is the first in a nearly 16-year string of Dortch being charged for selling illegal whiskey. 

“Three Arrested in Speakeasy,” The Macon Telegraph (Macon, Ga), 1930.

“Three Arrested in Speakeasy,” The Macon Telegraph (Macon, Ga), 1930.

Dortch was most famous for operating the Broadway hotel, which is now underneath the Wells Fargo bank at 484 Mulberry St, and using his position as operator to sell whiskey out of backrooms during 1929 and 1930.  Some of these encounters were rather dramatic, like when the police had to break down the door of the Broadway Hotel on May 17, 1929, to find the 7 gallons of whiskey being hastily poured out. Dortch was sentenced to spend 1 year in jail.  But, shortly after his release, Dortch was back to his old habits.  On September 21, 1930, Dortch was arrested again at 464 Mulberry Street for the sale of whiskey at the Broadway Hotel. Another year in the county jail could still not break Dortch of his old habits.  On September 10, 1932, a squadron of police officers raided a dive at 454 Poplar Street only to find that it was being operated by Russell Dortch.  This address is now known as 460 Poplar Street and, unlike the Broadway Hotel, is still standing with the original building intact.  This arrest marked the end of Dortch just being content with selling whiskey.   

A Macon Taxpayer and Voter, “Macon’s Dive Ordinance,” The Macon Telegraph (Macon, Ga), 1934.

A Macon Taxpayer and Voter, “Macon’s Dive Ordinance,” The Macon Telegraph (Macon, Ga), 1934.

In 1934, police raided an illegal distillery in Monroe County.  Seven men were arrested in total including Russell Dortch. Dortch was later revealed to be the head of the operation and he was selling most of the whiskey and beer they made in downtown Macon.  During the raid, police found 750 gallons of home brewed beer and 40 gallons of whiskey.  Since the Prohibition had ended in the previous year, Dortch was charged with violating the Internal Revenues Act since he was not paying taxes on any of the alcohol he made.  Needless to say, Dortch was sent back to the county for another year and fined to the tune of $300.  Unfortunately, there were no addresses given, so it is impossible to say exactly where Dortch was selling his illicit liquor.    

Finally, towards the end of 1938, Dortch was arraigned for selling untaxed whiskey outside of his home at 800 Elbert Street.  Police only found 8 gallons of whiskey this time and Dortch was sentenced to 2 years of probation after fighting his sentencing in court.

How lucky we are to flaunt our love of whiskey openly! And though we might resist prohibition laws should they threat to resurface, it doesn't prevent us from enjoying the thrill of recreating the vibe of a speakeasy for just one night. Our annual summer Preservation Pop-up Speakeasy is only weeks away. And though we won't share the location (yet), we can promise it will be a swinging time! 

2018 Patrons' Party

Historic Macon celebrates our patrons at The Tubman Musuem.

Historic Macon celebrates our patrons at The Tubman Musuem.

As one of the newest members to the HMF staff, I am still getting acquainted with this versatile organization and our expansive work throughout the community and beyond. The deeper I wade, the more impressed I become. If someone were to ask me what HMF’s most outstanding characteristic is, I would need some time to consider the answer. Though I would be tempted to say the unique, innovative approach to revitalization through preservation or the highly skilled, professional, diligent team I work alongside day in and day out, ultimately I must concede that the members themselves stand out as the most exceptional trait.

From my very first day with HMF, members have surprised me with an astonishing level of involvement, whether it be time, money, energy, ideas, connections, or resources. How many organizations like ours can boast over 3,500 volunteer hours a year? And that number is only growing. HMF members continually amaze me with their passion for preservation and commitment to Macon.

It is for this reason I eagerly prepared and welcomed the Patrons’ Party this past January, hoping all would be just right for our faithful members. How excited I was to experience my first one, brimming with the friendly faces of those who have characterized my inaugural months with HMF. Despite months of preparation, much to my chagrin there were still slight hiccups throughout the night (like temporarily darkened restrooms, runaway name tags, or missing bourbon), laughter still resounded throughout the atrium, assuring me that our members were enjoying themselves nevertheless.

The Patrons’ Party can only communicate a fraction of our gratitude, but I hope the importance and value of your involvement was and is clear. Thank you for your membership, we wouldn’t be who we are without you.

If you are interested in learning more about our memberships and how you can give back through the power of preservation, click here or call Trish at 478-742-5084. 


Las Vegas: A Preservation Theory Mecca?

Most people probably don’t think of Las Vegas, Nevada as a historic preservation hotspot. However, I recently attended the National Council on Public History’s (NCPH) annual meeting in Las Vegas and found several opportunities to engage with important questions facing the entire preservation community.

We had many great discussions about preservation and architecture at NCPH, but one opportunity that stands out is a tour of the Neon Museum. The museum was founded in 1996, and their initial collection was the “Neon Boneyard” that belonged to the Young Electric Sign Company, more commonly known as YESCO. Today, visitors have the opportunity to take hour-long guided tours of the outdoor collection.

The Neon Boneyard originally belonged to YESCO and it became the initial collection of the Neon Museum when the organization was founded in 1996. Today, the museum collects not just neon, but any sign from Las Vegas.  Image by Kim Campbell.

The Neon Boneyard originally belonged to YESCO and it became the initial collection of the Neon Museum when the organization was founded in 1996. Today, the museum collects not just neon, but any sign from Las Vegas. Image by Kim Campbell.

My group was lucky, in Las Vegas no less, to have Tracey Sprague, the Collections Assistant, lead our tour, so we talked a lot about preserving these signs. Although the Neon Museum does have an offsite indoor storage space, ninety-five percent of the collection is exposed to the elements of southern Nevada in the Boneyard. We asked Tracey how she felt about this fact, and she told us about the constant internal battle between keeping the signs visible to the public in the Boneyard and better preserving them in the private storage space. Since almost all historic buildings are exposed to the elements, we face similar issues of maintenance in historic preservation, though typically without the option of moving them to a more protected space.

Golden Nugget_Boneyard.jpg
Although many casinos and hotels in Las Vegas are demolished to make way for totally new businesses, others have gone through several facelifts or “re-brandings.” The Golden Nugget is one of those casinos and is still open in the “Glitter Glutch” section of Las Vegas Today.  Images by Kim Campbell.

Although many casinos and hotels in Las Vegas are demolished to make way for totally new businesses, others have gone through several facelifts or “re-brandings.” The Golden Nugget is one of those casinos and is still open in the “Glitter Glutch” section of Las Vegas Today. Images by Kim Campbell.

Only a few of the neon signs in the Neon Boneyard now light up. When asked why this is the case, Tracey explained that the process of “restoring” a historic neon sign actually involves gutting the original electrical system and replacing it with a modern system to ensure it is safe. When rehabilitating historic buildings, we constantly face this same decision. Should we gut the building and essentially make it modern inside? How little can we remove while meeting minimum life safety requirements? This battle is ever present in the field, and while the Neon Museum has the option to strictly preserve some signs in their non-functioning state, preservationists are typically faced with the option to either allow a building to be demolished or make it functional for modern life.

Whether or not signs are rehabilitated to function is decided on a case-by-case basis. La Concha’s sign was relit for interpretive purposes, since the visitor’s center is now housed in the moved original structure.  Image by Kim Campbell.   

Whether or not signs are rehabilitated to function is decided on a case-by-case basis. La Concha’s sign was relit for interpretive purposes, since the visitor’s center is now housed in the moved original structure. Image by Kim Campbell.  

The Neon Museum presented one final key preservation issue: that of a moved building. The visitor’s center and gift shop is an incredible example of a mid-century modern structure in the Googie style. Paul Revere Williams, the architect of the building, was the first African-American architect allowed in the American Institute of Architects. (To learn more about Paul Revere Williams, check out this great episode of 99% Invisible recommended to me by my coworker Lauren Mauldin.) This building was originally La Concha Motel on the Las Vegas Strip. When it closed in 2004, it was threatened with demolition because real estate on the Strip is so valuable. To save the structure, it was moved to the Neon Boneyard site. While preservationists are all for saving buildings, many in the field disapprove of moving structures, arguing they are not the same “place” once their setting changes. Wherever you fall on this spectrum, I think we can all agree that La Concha’s new home next to the Neon Boneyard was a major preservation win for Las Vegas.